What is Good Design? (According to Paul Graham)

Learn why simplicity, problem-solving, iteration, strangeness, and daring creativity are essential elements of effective design


Paul Graham, a renowned computer scientist, entrepreneur, and co-founder of Y Combinator, has provided invaluable insights into what constitutes good design. His principles extend across various fields, from mathematics to software development and art. In this blog post, we will delve into Graham’s philosophy on good design, expanding on his ideas to see how they apply to different domains.

Good Design is Simple

One of Graham’s core tenets is that good design is simple. This principle is echoed across disciplines, from mathematics to painting. In mathematics, a shorter proof is often considered superior because it distills the problem to its essence. Similarly, in programming, simplicity forces you to confront the real problem at hand. When you can’t rely on ornamental features, you must deliver substance.

Real-World Applications of Simplicity

In software development, simplicity can mean fewer lines of code, a minimalistic user interface, or streamlined functionality. For instance, Google’s homepage is a classic example of simplicity in design. Its uncluttered layout focuses the user’s attention on the search function, which is the core purpose of the site.

In product design, simplicity can make a product more user-friendly and intuitive. Think of the iPhone. Its sleek, minimalist design has set a standard in the industry, making it easy for users to navigate its features without needing a manual.

Good Design Solves the Right Problem

Graham emphasizes that good design addresses the right problem. Often, the key to solving a problem lies in redefining it. In software, an initially intractable problem can usually be replaced by an equivalent one that is easier to solve. This approach has parallels in other fields as well.

Improving Problems

In physics, for example, shifting the focus to predicting observable behavior rather than reconciling it with existing theories has led to significant advancements. Similarly, in business, reframing a problem can lead to more innovative solutions. For instance, Netflix didn’t just aim to improve DVD rentals; they redefined the problem as providing convenient, on-demand entertainment, leading to their streaming service.

Good Design is Redesign

Graham points out that good design is rarely achieved on the first attempt. Experts expect to iterate and improve their work over time. This process requires confidence and a willingness to discard early efforts that don’t meet the mark.

The Importance of Iteration

In the world of software, this principle is embodied in the agile development methodology, which emphasizes iterative progress and continuous improvement. Early versions of a software product are often rough, but through multiple iterations and user feedback, the product evolves into a polished, effective solution.

In the arts, the concept of redesign is equally important. Artists and designers often go through multiple drafts and revisions before arriving at a final piece. This iterative process allows for the refinement of ideas and the elimination of flaws.

Good Design is Often Strange

According to Graham, some of the best designs possess an uncanny quality. They’re not just beautiful; they’re strangely beautiful. This strangeness often results from pursuing truth or functionality rather than conforming to conventional standards of beauty.

Embracing Strangeness

In architecture, Frank Gehry’s designs, such as the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, are strikingly unconventional yet highly functional. Their unique forms challenge traditional architectural norms but serve their purpose effectively and beautifully.

In technology, the Lisp programming language is another example. Its syntax and structure are unusual compared to more mainstream languages, but its power and flexibility have made it a favorite among certain programming communities.

Good Design is Often Daring

Graham also notes that good design can be daring. Throughout history, people have held strong beliefs that were later proven wrong. To discover great new things, one must pay attention to areas where conventional wisdom and truth don’t quite align.

Challenging Conventional Wisdom

In the scientific community, daring ideas often lead to breakthroughs. Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, for example, was a radical departure from the accepted Newtonian physics of his time but ultimately revolutionized our understanding of the universe.

In business, daring to challenge the status quo can lead to disruptive innovations. Companies like Tesla have dared to defy conventional wisdom about the automotive industry, leading to groundbreaking advancements in electric vehicles and renewable energy.

The Recipe for Great Work

Paul Graham concludes that the recipe for great work is a combination of very exacting taste and the ability to gratify it. This means having a keen sense of what constitutes quality and the skills to achieve it.

Exacting Taste and Skill

In culinary arts, a top chef has both the discerning taste to recognize the perfect balance of flavors and the culinary skills to create it. Similarly, in design, having a refined aesthetic sense and the technical ability to bring that vision to life are crucial.

In entrepreneurship, this principle can be seen in successful startups. Founders often have a clear vision of what they want to achieve and the skills to execute that vision, whether through technology, marketing, or business strategy.


Paul Graham’s insights into good design offer valuable lessons that extend beyond any single field. By focusing on simplicity, solving the right problem, embracing iteration, welcoming strangeness, and daring to challenge norms, we can elevate our work to new heights. Whether you’re a designer, developer, entrepreneur, or artist, these principles can guide you toward creating work that is not only good but truly exceptional.

Understanding and applying these principles can help you navigate the complexities of design and innovation, ultimately leading to more effective and impactful solutions. So the next time you’re faced with a design challenge, remember Paul Graham’s wisdom and strive for simplicity, relevance, and daring creativity.

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